Sep 2014

September 2014, 1(3): 126 – 174


Review Article

Soy and its supplements in combating malnutrition and lifestyle disorders

Sheenam Garg*, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Vaibhao Lule, Nancy Awasti

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 126-131

Abstract: Malnutrition is one of the most devastating problems worldwide and is inextricably linked with poverty. Each individual requires a minimum amount of nutritious food to keep them healthy. When this minimum requirement is not met the human body becomes weak and susceptible to infection. Therefore, to recover from this problem it is very important to supplement the diet with protein and energy rich content. Soybean contains all the three essential macro-nutrients required for good nutrition which serves as an excellent complement to lysine-limited cereal protein. It is the cheapest legume having neutraceutical properties. The amino acid pattern of the soybean is similar to cow milk. Tempeh, a soy based product is another excellent example which can provide beneficial effects by combating malnutrition. Moreover, soy fortified foods can fill the gap between poverty and adequate nutrition. Hence soy products can be used to prevent malnutrition among vulnerable group of community.

*Corresponding Author:

Garg S email: sheenam25garg@gmail.com; Affiliation: Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (HR)-13001, India


Original Research

Development of eco-friendly herbal mosquito repellent

Susheela Palanisami*, Ezhili Natarajan, Radha Rajamma

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 132-136

Abstract: Mosquitoes are the most important and abundant pest in urban, sub-urban and rural environment. Although, chemical control provides quick mortality, resistance of mosquito against the use of insecticides have been widely reported. Moreover, chemical mosquito repellents contain toxic synthetic pyrethroids as active ingredients whose exposure to food and water is hazardous to health. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an eco friendly mosquito repellent sprayed with lemon grass oil. It is an established fact and practice is that the natural mosquito repellent is more effective and keeps environment pleasant and eco friendly. Raw materials have been selected based on experience and practice by ancestors. The formulation is safe, eco-friendly, cheap, easy to use and has maximum repellence against mosquitoes. In addition this, the mosquito repellent is less harmful to our health than the ones available in the market.

*Corresponding Author:

Palanisami S email: susheelasomu@gmail.com; Affiliation: Department of Zoology, PSGR Krishnammal college for women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India


Original Research

Agronomic performance of maize under high temperature condition

Jiban Shrestha*, Dil Bahadur Gurung, Krishna Prasad Dhital

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 137-141

Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) is second most important crop in Nepal and its production is greatly affected by high temperature stresses. Improving heat tolerance in maize has become one of the top priorities for maize breeding program in the country. In order to identify high grain yielding maize genotypes under high temperature condition, field experiments were conducted at Parwanipur (Bara), Nepalgunj (Banke) and Rampur (Chitwan) during summer season of 2010. The forty four genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications. The pooled analysis over locations showed that TLBRSO7F16 produced the highest grain yield with shorter anthesis silking interval (ASI) and bigger ear length (2809 kg/ha, 3 days, 14.4 cm) followed by RPOP-4 (2417 kg/ha, 2 days, 13.6 cm), TLBRSO7F14 (2316 kg/ha, 3 days, 14.2 cm), BLSBSO7F10 (2159 kg/ha, 2 days, 14.4 cm), Manakamana-3 (2108 kg/ha, 2 days, 14.7 cm) and Upahar (2108 kg/ha, 4 days, 14.3 cm). Therefore it was concluded that TLBRSO7F16, RPOP-4, TLBRSO7F14, BLSBSO7F10, Manakamana-3 and Upahar were best genotypes under high temperature conditions at terai region of Nepal.

*Corresponding Author:

Shrestha J. email: jibshrestha@yahoo.com; Affiliation: National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal


Original Research

In-vitro isolation and identification of pathogens causing opportunistic mycoses in India

Seema Rani; Pankaj Kumar jiloha*

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 142-146

Abstract: The frequency of invasive opportunistic mycoses has increased significantly over the past decades especially in immuno-compromised patients. Invasive mycoses are emerging as an important public health problem worldwide. The emergence of non-albicans Candida species and in particular C. tropicalis, has been documented. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have a significant impact on public health in the region, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. The incidence of IFI in India is increasing because of the expanded population of immuno- suppressed patients resulting from advances in medical technology, such as treatment for cancer and transplantation, as well as the impact of human immunodeficiency virus. During a study, performed in the Dept. of Microbiology of SRL diagnostic center Gurgaon, a total of 400 samples were collected and analyzed. For isolation of the pathogens, samples were directly inoculated to SDA and BHI agar. Loopful sample should be inoculated to each tube of both medium i.e. two tubes of SDA and BHI. Among the various samples, 107 were positive (26.2%). 107 (99%) fungal isolates were recovered from these samples i.e. Candida species, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. All the isolates were identified to their species level using germ tube test, growth characteristics, mold slide culture and Microscan walkway 40s1 identification panel. Out of isolated pathogen, Candida 94 (87.90%) was most predominant followed by Aspergillus 08 (7.5%) and Penicillium 05 (4.6%). In vitro study determines that Candida albicans (53.1%) dominating over C. tropicalis (22.3%).

*Corresponding Author:

Jiloha PK email: pkpkmicro632@gmail.com; Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, India


Review Article

Biochip based detection- An emerging tool for ensuring safe milk: A review

Geetika Thakur, Raghu HV*., Tehri N., Kumar N., Avinash Y., Malik RK.

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 147-154

Abstract: Milk is consumed by all age groups as a source of nutrition and it is usually contaminated with microbial and non-microbial contaminants which are of public health importance. These contaminants are the cause of economic loss to the dairy industry. The compliance of food products with respect to these contaminants by regulatory authorities are also an important factor that affects the export of milk and milk products across the different countries. In order to ensure safe milk for human consumption, there is an urgent need for routine and rapid monitoring of these contaminants. Biochip based systems are an emerging technology which has made possible the rapid analysis of microbial and non-microbial contaminants in milk. The use of biochip based methods for analyzing the safety of milk is the subject of this review. Various biochip based assays developed for detection of microorganisms, biotoxins, heavy metals, adulterants, pesticide and antibiotics residues in milk matrix have been discussed. The challenges for the application of biochips for analyzing the safety of the milk have also been discussed.

*Corresponding Author:

Raghu HV email: raghuforever121@gmail.com; Affiliation: Food Safety and Microbial Biosensor Laboratory, Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India


Review Article

Chrysene: a carcinogen and its microbial degradation

Nimisha patel, Arif Ali*

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 155-162

Abstract: Chrysene is one of 16 poly aromatic hydrocarbons which are toxic pollutants of priority by USEPA (United State Environmental Protection Agency). It is a high molecular weight PAHs ((Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) consisting of four fused benzene rings with solubility 0.006 mg/l. Chrysene and it’s different isoforms such as 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC) , 5-methylchrysene are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC) is by far the most mutagenic and toxic polycyclic hydrocarbon identified. Its metabolic activation leads to the formation of such toxic metabolites that binds to DNA causing mutations and ultimately tumor induction.Bioremediation is a promising technique for the complete removal of such hazardous compounds from the nature. This review discusses the various carcinogenic isoforms of chrysene, their processing in the living tissues, triggering of various carcinogenic activities. Keywords- Chrysene, Bioremediation, PAHs, Carcinogen.

*Corresponding Author:

Arif A email: ali.arifali@gmail.com; Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi- 110025, India


Review Article

Human brucellosis: A silent but dreadful disease

Hari Mohan*, Subhash Kharb

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 163-167

Abstract: Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of human beings transmitted usually by direct contact with infected animals, their secretions and consuming milk or milk products. The disease occurs worldwide in animals as well as humans. Brucellosis in human beings is a multisystem disease with severe clinical manifestations in patients depending upon the site of infection and organ involved. Human brucellosis affects all age groups and considered as one of the most common laboratory acquired infections. The disease often remains under-diagnosed and under-reported due to poor seroprevalence studies which further pose difficulty in the eradication program. By following suitable brucellosis eradication strategies in animals, human brucellosis can correspo-ndingly be controlled. The present article discusses about different aspects of human brucellosis and its control.

*Corresponding Author:

Mohan H email: ali.arifali@gmail.com; Affiliation: Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, India


Original Research

Biodiversity of Lactobacillus from traditional Indian cow milk Churpi cheese

Dhiraj Kumar Nanda, Reeti Chaudhary*, Karan Veer Singh, Dinesh Kumar

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 3: Pages: 168-174

Abstract: Churpi cheese is one of the traditional varieties of fermented dairy product prepared from cow milk, and consumed by ethnic groups of people residing in alpine regions of India, Sikkim and Darjeeling. The aim of current study was to investigate the biodiversity of Lactobacilli in indigenous Churpi cheese prepared from cow milk. Twenty strains of Lactobacilli were isolated from eight different samples of Churpi cheese procured from different regions of Sikkim (India), and were analysed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. For molecular characterization of these isolates 16 S r DNA sequencing was carried out which confirmed species of these isolates. Nine isolates were confirmed as Lactobacillus casei, followed by four as L. plantarum, three as L. delbrueckii, two as L. paracasei, and two as L. brevis. The results of this study shows a high level of biodiversity among Lactobacilli isolated from Churpi cheese and offered a remarkable reservoir of ‘natural’ microbes. Isolates obtained in this study can be potentially used for the development of defined strain starter for Churpi cheese and other dairy products.

*Corresponding Author:

Chaudhary R email: reeti.malik@gmail.com; Affiliation: Center Department of Biotechnology, D C R University of Science & Technology, Murthal – 131039, Haryana