June 2014

June 2014, 1(2): 057 – 125

Original Research

Lawsonia inermis: A potent efflux pump inhibitor of fluoroquinolones

Leena Seasotiya, Sunita Dalal*

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 057-062

Abstract: Antibiotic resistance in bacterial strains always remains a critical concern. Mutations in antibiotic target sites, over expression of efflux pump are the major modes of development of antibiotic resistant. The present study was conducted to determine fluoroquinolones antibiotic resistance and role of efflux pumps in fluoroquinolone resistance by using efflux pump inhibitors. Fifty seven bacterial strains were tested against ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin by agar well diffusion assay. Twenty four bacterial strains were found to be resistant against ciprofloxacin and 19 against ofloxacin. Further, fluoroquinolone sensitive strains were tested to observe the decline in Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels in presence/absence of standard efflux pump inhibitors (piperine and plumbagin). Leaf extracts of Lawsonia inermis were tested as efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) against the selected bacterial strains. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin) possesses antibacterial activity and when combined with various subfractions resulted in synergistic interactions by declining its MIC to 1/2 and 1/4 against K. pneumoniae. Hence, the compounds in these extracts can serve as templates of new antibacterial agents as well as EPIs.

*Corresponding Author:

Dalal S., email: sdalal@kuk.ac.in; Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119.

Original Research

Geno- cytotoxicity study of antiretroviral drug used in HIV- therapy

Dhirender Kaushik*, Reena Saini, Avatar Chand Rana, Pawan Kaushik

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 063-067

Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of the Geno-cytotoxic effect of the abacavir at different doses 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg (b.w) by using peripheral blood micronucleus assay(tail cut method), sperm abnormality assay and chromosomal aberration assay. In the Peripheral blood micronucleus assay there was increase in the Micronuclei in the peripheral blood of group II & group III in drug treated rats (p<0.01), significantly as compared to control group but not more than the standard. In sperm abnormality assay, administration of abacavir for 28 consecutive days, result marked decrease in sperm count, testis weight but not significant effect was observed in morphological study of sperm. In vivo chromosomal aberration assay, all drug treated group showed significant value (p<0.01) as compared to control and in chromosomal aberrations the percentage of abbreviation significantly (p<0.01) increased at 300 and 600mg/kg & at 100mg/kg showed (p < 0.05) significant value. Thus it can be concluded that abacavir induces abnormality in genetic makeup and fertility function because of its genocytotoxic nature

*Corresponding Author:

Kaushik D., email: dkaushik.apti@gamil.com; Affiliation: Institute of Pharmaceutiial Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119

Original Research

Assessment of gut associated changes and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet fed Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Satvinder Singh*, Raj Kumar Sharma, Shilpi Malhotra, Ramesh Pothuraju, Umesh Kumar Shandilya

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 068-077

Abstract: The present study evaluated gut related changes and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet (HFD) fed and streptozotocin (STZ) treated diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed on HFD (60% kcal fat) and normal chow (control) for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, HFD fed rats were injected with STZ (35 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to induce type 2 diabetes. High fat diet fed STZ treated rats had reduction in the oral glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, HDL-C and raised fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and atherogenic index in comparison to HFD fed rats. On the other hand, feeding of high fat diet resulted in decrease in the total number of bacteria as well as other bacterial groups in comparison to control. Bifidobacteria were most significantly reduced. The propionate proportions (%) in caecal contents were increased in HFD fed rats in comparison to control while HFD fed diabetic animals had decreased propionate proportions. Expression analysis of proglucagon and PC1 in cecum and IL-6 in epididymal fat was higher in HFD fed group and lower expression of adiponectin in epididymal fat as compared to control. STZ treatment significantly lowered the expression of proglucagon and PC1 in cecum and adiponectin in epididymal fat and increased the expression of TNF- and IL-6 in epididymal fat. These results suggest that improvement of gut related parameters by nutritional/therapeutic approaches may have beneficial effect on obesity and diabetes.

*Corresponding Author:

Singh S., email: satvinderbiochem@gamil.com; Affiliation: Animal Biochemistry Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India

Original Research

Therapeutic effects of probiotic fermented milk (LGG and L. casei NCDC 19) on progression of type 2 diabetes

Seema Sangwan*, Rameshwar Singh

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 078-083

Abstract: In today’s world where diabetes has become an epidemic, our aim evaluated the effect of probiotics fermented milk prepared using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 on progression of type-2 diabetes. Male albino Wistar rats were fed with normal chow diet (control) and HFD i.e. high fructose diet (68.35% fructose) for 63 days. The high fructose diet fed rats were also given LGG and L. casei NCDC 19 fermented milk along with HFD till the end of study. The groups fed with probiotic fermented milk along with HFD showed low fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides than the pure diabetic group fed with only HFD. Oxidative stress was also decreased in these groups. These results concluded that probiotic fermented milks have beneficial approach against type-2 diabetes. Therefore continuous feeding of fermented milks can be considered as an important dietary defense weapon to fight against type-2 diabetes in our daily life.

*Corresponding Author:

Sangwan S., email: cmasangwan123@gamil.com; Affiliation: Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India

Review Article

Nanotechnology: A novel approach towards cancer treatment

Rahul Goyal, Sunil Kumar*

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 084-096

Abstract: Nanotechnology deals with the study of any material substance having size in the range of 1-100 nm. It is a cutting edge technology having extensive scope in the fields of food and environmental science, chemistry, physics, biology, and many other fields with unprecedented
applications. Nanoparticles are the building blocks of nanotechnology offering diverse applications in almost every field at the atomic scale. Nanoparticles exhibit novel characteristics like optical, electrical conductance, mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties which are
different from properties of the same material exhibiting at the bulk scale. Nanotechnology is the most prominent technology in the field of medical science for the treatment and prevention of severe and incurable fatal diseases like cancer. Nanoparticles and nano devices enable cancer detection, treatment and prevention faster than conventional therapies. This review article explains cancer and causes, factors responsible for cancer occurrence and finally, nanotechnology based therapies for cancer detection and treatment

*Corresponding Author:

Kumar S., email: sunyad84@gmail.com; Affiliation: Centre for Plant Biotechnology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Campus, Hisar – 125 004, India

Review Article

Biologically active components of human and bovine milk as potent antimicrobial agents

Harsh Panwar*

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 097-104

Abstract: Colostrums and milk are rich source of antimicrobial proteins and peptides which plays a vital role in immunity of offspring and accelerate maturation of their immune system. These primary protective factors of milk do have potential to be explored as bio-therapeutic agents in prevention and therapy of multiple microbe mediate infections and food spoilage. Natural bioactive components of milk exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties that open new avenues for development of safe and cost effective therapies. This review provides a brief overview of the antimicrobial components of milk with their potential application as therapeutic agents. The term ‘bovine’ used in upcoming sections, represents Cow and Bufallo milk, unless until specified. A detailed understanding of these antimicrobial proteins and other components offers great potential to add value to the dairy industry. There is rich scope of identifying novel milk peptides having both nutritional and therapeutic values.

*Corresponding Author:

Panwar H., email: drhpanwar@gmail.com; Affiliation: Dairy Mircobiology, College of Dairy Science & Technology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Original Research

Hypocholesterolemic effect of a Lactobacillus gasseri strain Lg70 isolated from breast fed human infant feces

Garima Singroha*, Neha Pandey, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Santosh Kumar Mishra

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 105-111

Abstract: In this study we evaluated the hypocholesterolemic effect of a L. gasseri strain Lg70 isolated from human infant feces. Twenty four rats were randomly assigned to three groups comprising eight rats in each group. The three groups were negative control group (fed on normal basal diet), positive control group (fed on cholesterol enriched diet only) and test group (fed on cholesterol enriched diet supplemented with milk fermented with Lg70) for 90 days. Blood samples and fecal samples were collected after every 30 days and total cholesterol level, HDL-C, LDL-C, serum triglycerides, atherogenic index and coliform & LAB counts were analyzed on monthly basis. After 90 days feeding on their respective diets it was found that in test group receiving milk fermented with Lg70 total cholesterol level were decreased significantly by 29.71% (p <0.05), LDL-C concentration decreased by 49.54% (p<0.05), HDL-C level increased by 36.70% and the
atherogenic index was reduced by 62.52%. The fecal coliforms were reduced from 6.4±0.6 to 3.9±0.5 log cfu in feces of rats receiving milk fermented by Lg70 and lactobacilli counts were increased from 6.8±0.3 log cfu to 10.8±0.7 log cfu. Rats that received milk fermented with Lg70 displayed least weight gain among all groups suggesting that Lg70 might have inhibitory effect on excess weight gain due to cholesterol enriched diet and so besides having hypocholesterolemic effect Lg70 can also be used to control obesity.

*Corresponding Author:

Singroha G. email: garima.singroha@gmail.com; Affiliation: Microbial Metabolite lab, Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India

Original Research

Leaf-spot disease of Trianthema portulacastrum – a new record from world

Kamal Rai Aneja*, Vikas Kumar, Chetan Sharma

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 112-116

Abstract: Trianthema portulacastrum L., an indigenous plant to South Africa, is a very common weed of tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. In the years 2011-13 a series of surveys for natural enemies of horse purslane were conducted in Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. A leaf spot disease was found on horse purslane at Kurukshetra. A species of Fusarium was isolated on PDA and TeDA media from infected leaves. On the basis of cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics, it was identified as Fusarium chlamydosporum Wollenw. & Reinking. In vitro inoculation on Trianthema leaves, the pathogen showed similar symptoms as occurred in nature. Thus, proving pathogenicity and Koch’s posulates. This is the first report of occurrence of F. chlamydosporum causing leaf spot on horse purslane from the world.

*Corresponding Author:

Aneja KR email: anejakr@yahoo.ca; Affiliation: Vaidyanath Research, Training and Diagnostic Centre, Kurukshetra-136118, India

Original Research

A new strain of Alternaria alternata (AL-14) on water hyacinth from India

Kamal Rai Aneja*, Pankaj Kumar, Chetan Sharma

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 117-121

Abstract: Water hyacinth is one of the most dangerous aquatic weeds not only in India but all around the globe. In the years 2011-13, extensive surveys of various ponds, pools, lakes and rivers were made with the objective to search, isolate and evaluate potential fungal pathogens on water hyacinth. During various surveys conducted in different regions of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, populations of water hyacinth in various ponds of Kurukshetra (Haryana) were found to be heavily affected by various types of leaf spots and leaf blotches. From the infected leaves, an isolate of Alternaria was isolated on water hyacinth dextrose agar (WHDA). Based on the symptomatology, cultural, morphological characteristics and molecular basis (nucleotide homo-logy and phylogenetic analysis) it was found to be a new strain of Alternaria alternata. The pathogenicity and Koch’s postulates have been proved in vitro.

*Corresponding Author:

Aneja KR email: anejakr@yahoo.ca; Affiliation: Vaidyanath Research, Training and Diagnostic Centre, Kurukshetra-136118, India

Short Communication

Studies in determination of some parameters of ‘Ganga river’water, Kanwar Mela 2013, Haridwar

Pushpa Rani, Anurag Tiwari*, Rahul Navin, Shivani Sood

J Innov Biol (2014) Volume 1, Issue 2: Pages: 122-125

Abstract: This paper deals with Physico-chemical parameters of River Ganga water in Haridwar during Kanwar Mela 2013.Different chemical parameters like temperature, pH, total solid, total dissolved solids, total suspended solid, hardness, DO, COD & chlorides in River Ganga water were analyzed. The physico-chemical parameters were found to be within the safe limits of drinking and domestic uses as World health organization WHO. This study indicates that there is a little increase in water pollution level in River Ganga during Kanwar Mela, Haridwar. The results clearly indicated that the mass bathing linked with ritual activities increased the values of different parameters of World Health Organization. The water was fit for drinking purposes on Holy days like Somvati Amavasya, Poornima.

*Corresponding Author:

Tiwari A. email: atofbt@gmail.com; Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology Engineering, JMIT, Radaur, Yamuna Nagar, India